- What does Flutter provide?
- What is inside the Flutter SDK?
- Does Flutter work with any editors or IDEs?
- Does Flutter come with a framework?
- Does Flutter come with widgets?
- Does Flutter support Material Theming?
- Does Flutter come with a testing framework?
- Does Flutter come with debugging tools?
- Does Flutter come with a dependency injection framework or solution?
- What technology is Flutter built with?
- How does Flutter run my code on Android?
- How does Flutter run my code on iOS?
- Does Flutter use my system’s OEM widgets?
- What happens when my mobile OS updates and introduces new widgets?
- What happens when my mobile OS updates and introduces new platform capabilities?
- What operating systems can I use to build a Flutter app?
- What language is Flutter written in?
- Why did Flutter choose to use Dart?
- Can Flutter run any Dart code?
- How big is the Flutter engine?
- What kind of app performance can I expect?
- What kind of developer cycles can I expect? How long between edit and refresh?
- How is hot reload different from hot restart?
- Where can I deploy my Flutter app?
- What devices and OS versions does Flutter run on?
- Does Flutter run on the web?
- Can I use Flutter to build desktop apps?
- Can I use Flutter inside of my existing native app?
- Can I access platform services and APIs like sensors and local storage?
- Can I extend and customize the bundled widgets?
- Why would I want to share layout code across iOS and Android?
- Can I interop with my mobile platform’s default programming language?
- Does Flutter come with a reflection/mirrors system?
- How do I do internationalization (i18n), localization (l10n), and accessibility (a11y) in Flutter?
- How do I write parallel and/or concurrent apps for Flutter?
- Can I run Dart code in the background of an Flutter app?
- Can I use JSON/XML/protobuffers, etc. with Flutter?
- Can I build 3D (OpenGL) apps with Flutter?
- Why is my APK or IPA so big?
- Do Flutter apps run on Chromebooks?
- Where can I get support?
- How do I get involved?
- Is Flutter open source?
- Which software license(s) apply to Flutter and its dependencies?
- How can I determine the licenses my Flutter application needs to show?
- Who works on Flutter?
- What are Flutter’s guiding principles?
- Will Apple reject my Flutter app?
What is Flutter?
Flutter is Google’s portable UI toolkit for crafting beautiful, natively compiled applications for mobile, web, and desktop from a single codebase. Flutter works with existing code, is used by developers and organizations around the world, and is free and open source.
What does Flutter do?
For users, Flutter makes beautiful app UIs come to life.
For developers, Flutter lowers the bar to entry for building apps. It speeds up development of apps and reduces the cost and complexity of app production across platforms.
For designers, Flutter helps deliver the original design vision, without loss of fidelity or compromises. It also acts as a productive prototyping tool.
Who is Flutter for?
Flutter is for developers that want a faster way to build beautiful apps, or a way to reach more users with a single investment.
Flutter is also for engineering managers that lead development teams. Flutter allows eng managers to create a single mobile, web, and desktop app dev team, unifying their development investments to ship more features faster, ship the same feature set to multiple platforms at the same time, and lower maintenance costs.
Flutter is also for designers that want their original design visions delivered consistently, with high fidelity, to all users. In fact, CodePen now supports Flutter.
Fundamentally, Flutter is for users that want beautiful apps, with delightful motion and animation, and UIs with character and an identity all their own.
How experienced of a programmer/
developer do I have to be to use Flutter?
Flutter is approachable to programmers familiar with object-oriented concepts (classes, methods, variables, etc) and imperative programming concepts (loops, conditionals, etc).
No prior experience is required in order to learn and use Flutter.
We have seen people with very little programming experience learn and use Flutter for prototyping and app development.
What kinds of apps can I build with Flutter?
Flutter is optimized for 2D mobile apps that want to run on both Android and iOS. Flutter is also great for interactive apps that you want to run on your web pages or on the desktop. (Note that web support is in beta, and desktop support is in alpha.)
Apps that need to deliver brand-first designs are particularly well suited for Flutter. However, apps that need to look like stock platform apps can also be built with Flutter.
You can build full-featured apps with Flutter, including camera, geolocation, network, storage, 3rd-party SDKs, and more.
Who makes Flutter?
Flutter is an open source project, with contributions from Google and the community.
Who uses Flutter?
Developers inside and outside of Google use Flutter to build beautiful natively-compiled apps for iOS and Android. To learn about some of these apps, visit the showcase.
What makes Flutter unique?
Flutter is different than most other options for building mobile apps because Flutter uses neither WebView nor the OEM widgets that shipped with the device. Instead, Flutter uses its own high-performance rendering engine to draw widgets.
In addition, Flutter is different because it only has a thin layer of C/C++ code. Flutter implements most of its system (compositing, gestures, animation, framework, widgets, etc) in Dart (a modern, concise, object-oriented language) that developers can easily approach read, change, replace, or remove. This gives developers tremendous control over the system, as well as significantly lowers the bar to approachability for the majority of the system.
Should I build my next production app with Flutter?
Flutter 1.0 was launched on Dec 4th, 2018. Thousands of apps have shipped with Flutter to hundreds of millions of devices. See some sample apps in the showcase.
For more information on the launch and subsequent releases, see Flutter 1.0: Google’s Portable UI Toolkit.
What does Flutter provide?
What is inside the Flutter SDK?
- Heavily optimized, mobile-first 2D rendering engine with excellent support for text
- Modern react-style framework
- Rich set of widgets implementing Material Design and iOS-style.
- APIs for unit and integration tests
- Interop and plugin APIs to connect to the system and 3rd-party SDKs
- Headless test runner for running tests on Windows, Linux, and Mac
- Dart DevTools for testing, debugging, and profiling your app
- Command-line tools for creating, building, testing, and compiling your apps
Does Flutter work with any editors or IDEs?
Alternatively, you can use a combination of the
flutter command in a terminal and one of the
many editors that support editing Dart.
Does Flutter come with a framework?
Yes! Flutter ships with a modern framework, inspired by React. Flutter’s framework is designed to be layered and customizable (and optional). Developers can choose to use only parts of the framework, or a different framework.
Does Flutter come with widgets?
Yes! Flutter ships with a set of high quality Material Design and Cupertino (iOS-style) widgets, layouts, and themes. Of course, these widgets are only a starting point. Flutter is designed to make it easy to create your own widgets, or customize the existing widgets.
Does Flutter support Material Theming?
Yes! The Flutter and Material teams collaborate closely, and Material Theming is fully supported. A number of examples of this are shown in the MDC-103 Flutter: Material Theming codelab.
Does Flutter come with a testing framework?
Yes, Flutter provides APIs for writing unit and integration tests. Learn more about testing with Flutter.
We use our own testing capabilities to test our SDK. We measure our test coverage on every commit.
Does Flutter come with debugging tools?
While Flutter doesn’t ship with debugging tools, there are many tools available that can help you debug your Flutter application. Learn more about debugging with Flutter.
Does Flutter come with a dependency injection framework or solution?
Not at this time. Share your ideas at firstname.lastname@example.org.
What technology is Flutter built with?
Flutter is built with C, C++, Dart, and Skia (a 2D rendering engine). See this architecture diagram for a better picture of the main components.
How does Flutter run my code on Android?
The engine’s C and C++ code are compiled with Android’s NDK. The Dart code (both the SDK’s and yours) are ahead-of-time (AOT) compiled into native, ARM, and x86 libraries. Those libraries are included in a “runner” Android project, and the whole thing is built into an APK. When launched, the app loads the Flutter library. Any rendering, input, or event handling, and so on, is delegated to the compiled Flutter and app code. This is similar to the way many game engines work.
Debug mode builds use a virtual machine (VM) to run Dart code (hence the “debug” banner they show to remind people that they’re slightly slower) in order to enable Stateful Hot Reload.
How does Flutter run my code on iOS?
The engine’s C and C++ code are compiled with LLVM.
The Dart code (both the SDK’s and yours) are ahead-of-time
(AOT) compiled into a native, ARM library.
That library is included in a “runner” iOS project,
and the whole thing is built into an
When launched, the app loads the Flutter library.
Any rendering, input or event handling, and so on,
are delegated to the compiled Flutter and app code.
This is similar to the way many game engines work.
Debug mode builds use a virtual machine (VM) to run Dart code (hence the “debug” banner they show to remind people that they’re slightly slower) in order to enable Stateful Hot Reload.
Does Flutter use my system’s OEM widgets?
No. Instead, Flutter provides a set of widgets (including Material Design and Cupertino (iOS-styled) widgets), managed and rendered by Flutter’s framework and engine. You can browse a catalog of Flutter’s widgets.
We hope that the end-result is higher quality apps. If we reused the OEM widgets, the quality and performance of Flutter apps would be limited by the quality of those widgets.
In Android, for example, there’s a hard-coded set of gestures and fixed rules for disambiguating them. In Flutter, you can write your own gesture recognizer that is a first-class participant in the gesture system. Moreover, two widgets authored by different people can coordinate to disambiguate gestures.
Modern app design trends point towards designers and users wanting more motion-rich UIs and brand-first designs. In order to achieve that level of customized, beautiful design, Flutter is architectured to drive pixels instead of the OEM widgets.
By using the same renderer, framework, and set of widgets, it’s easier to publish for both iOS and Android concurrently, without having to do careful and costly planning to align two separate codebases and feature sets.
By using a single language, a single framework, and a single set of libraries for all of your UI (regardless if your UI is different for each platform or largely consistent), we also aim to help lower app development and maintenance costs.
What happens when my mobile OS updates and introduces new widgets?
The Flutter team watches the adoption and demand for new mobile widgets from iOS and Android, and aims to work with the community to build support for new widgets. This work might come in the form of lower-level framework features, new composable widgets, or new widget implementations.
Flutter’s layered architecture is designed to support numerous widget libraries, and we encourage and support the community in building and maintaining widget libraries.
What happens when my mobile OS updates and introduces new platform capabilities?
Flutter’s interop and plugin system is designed to allow developers to access new mobile OS features and capabilities immediately. Developers don’t have to wait for the Flutter team to expose the new mobile OS capability.
What operating systems can I use to build a Flutter app?
Flutter supports development on Linux, Mac, and, Windows.
What language is Flutter written in?
We looked at a lot of languages and runtimes, and ultimately adopted Dart for the framework and widgets. The underlying graphics framework and the Dart virtual machine are implemented in C/C++.
Why did Flutter choose to use Dart?
Flutter used four primary dimensions for evaluation, and considered the needs of framework authors, developers, and end users. We found some languages met some requirements, but Dart scored highly on all of our evaluation dimensions and met all our requirements and criteria.
Dart runtimes and compilers support the combination of two critical features for Flutter: a JIT-based fast development cycle that allows for shape changing and stateful hot reloads in a language with types, plus an Ahead-of-Time compiler that emits efficient ARM code for fast startup and predictable performance of production deployments.
In addition, we have the opportunity to work closely with the Dart community, which is actively investing resources in improving Dart for use in Flutter. For example, when we adopted Dart, the language didn’t have an ahead-of-time toolchain for producing native binaries, which is instrumental in achieving predictable, high performance, but now the language does because the Dart team built it for Flutter. Similarly, the Dart VM has previously been optimized for throughput but the team is now optimizing the VM for latency, which is more important for Flutter’s workload.
Dart scores highly for us on the following primary criteria:
Developer productivity. One of Flutter’s main value propositions is that it saves engineering resources by letting developers create apps for both iOS and Android with the same codebase. Using a highly productive language accelerates developers further and makes Flutter more attractive. This was very important to both our framework team as well as our developers. The majority of Flutter is built in the same language we give to our users, so we need to stay productive at 100k’s lines of code, without sacrificing approachability or readability of the framework and widgets for our developers.
Object-orientation. For Flutter, we want a language that’s suited to Flutter’s problem domain: creating visual user experiences. The industry has multiple decades of experience building user interface frameworks in object-oriented languages. While we could use a non-object-oriented language, this would mean reinventing the wheel to solve several hard problems. Plus, the vast majority of developers have experience with object-oriented development, making it easier to learn how to develop with Flutter.
Predictable, high performance. With Flutter, we want to empower developers to create fast, fluid user experiences. In order to achieve that, we need to be able to run a significant amount of end-developer code during every animation frame. That means we need a language that both delivers high performance and delivers predictable performance, without periodic pauses that would cause dropped frames.
Fast allocation. The Flutter framework uses a functional-style flow that depends heavily on the underlying memory allocator efficiently handling small, short-lived allocations. This style was developed in languages with this property and doesn’t work efficiently in languages that lack this facility.
Can Flutter run any Dart code?
Flutter should be able to run most Dart code that doesn’t import (transitively, or directly) dart:mirrors or dart:html.
How big is the Flutter engine?
In July 2019, we measured the download size of a
minimal Flutter app (no Material Components,
just a single
Center widget, built with
flutter build apk --split-per-abi),
bundled and compressed as a release APK,
to be approximately 4.3 MB for ARM,
and 4.6 MB for ARM 64.
In ARM, the core engine is approximately 3.2 MB (compressed), the framework + app code is approximately 920.6 KB (compressed), the LICENSE file is 54.3 KB (compressed), necessary Java code (classes.dex) is 113.6 KB (compressed).
In ARM64, the core engine is approximately 3.5 MB (compressed), the framework + app code is approximately 872 KB (compressed), the LICENSE file is 54.3 KB (compressed), necessary Java code (classes.dex) is 113.6 KB (compressed).
On iOS, a release IPA of the same app has a download size of 10.9 MB on an iPhone X, as reported by Apple’s App Store Connect. The IPA is larger than the APK mainly because Apple encrypts binaries within the IPA, making the compression less efficient (see the iOS App Store Specific Considerations section of Apple’s QA1795).
The release engine binary includes LLVM IR (bitcode). Xcode uses this bitcode to produce a final binary for the App Store containing the latest compiler optimizations and features. The profile and debug frameworks contain only a bitcode marker, and are more representative of the engine’s actual binary size. Whether you ship with bitcode or not, the increased size of the release framework is stripped out during the final steps of the build. These steps happen after archiving your app and shipping it to the store.
Of course, we recommend that you measure your own app. To do that, see Measuring your app’s size.
What kind of app performance can I expect?
You can expect excellent performance. Flutter is designed to help developers easily achieve a constant 60fps. Flutter apps run via natively compiled code—no interpreters are involved. This means Flutter apps start quickly.
What kind of developer cycles can I expect? How long between edit and refresh?
Flutter implements a hot reload developer cycle. You can expect sub-second reload times, on a device or an emulator/simulator.
Flutter’s hot reload is stateful, which means the app state is retained after a reload. This means you can quickly iterate on a screen deeply nested in your app, without starting from the home screen after every reload.
How is hot reload different from hot restart?
Hot reload works by injecting updated source code files into the running Dart VM (Virtual Machine). This doesn’t only add new classes, but also adds methods and fields to existing classes, and changes existing functions. Hot restart resets the state to the app’s initial state.
For more information, see Hot reload.
Where can I deploy my Flutter app?
You can compile and deploy your Flutter app to iOS, Android, web (in beta), and desktop (macOS is in alpha, Linux and Windows are in development). While some folks are already deploying Flutter web apps, you might want to wait for web and desktop support to migrate to the stable channel.
What devices and OS versions does Flutter run on?
Mobile operating systems: Android Jelly Bean, v16, 4.1.x or newer, and iOS 8 or newer.
Mobile hardware: iOS devices (iPhone 4S or newer) and ARM Android devices.
Flutter supports building ahead-of-time (AOT) compiled libraries for
Apps built for ARMv7 or ARM64 run fine (using ARM emulation) on many x86 Android devices.
We support developing Flutter apps with Android and iOS devices, as well as with Android emulators and the iOS simulator.
We test on a variety of low-end to high-end phones and tablets, but we don’t yet have an official device compatibility guarantee.
Does Flutter run on the web?
Flutter web is currently in beta. You can repackage existing Flutter code to work on the web, but there are some caveats while web support is still under development. For more details, check out the web instructions.
Can I use Flutter to build desktop apps?
Yes, desktop support is in alpha, with macOS being the furthest along. We’re working on making this a first class experience. The current progress is documented on the Desktop page.
Can I use Flutter inside of my existing native app?
Yes, one fullscreen Flutter instance can be integrated per app on Android and iOS.
See the integration documentation in the add-to-app section of our website.
Can I access platform services and APIs like sensors and local storage?
Yes. Flutter gives developers out-of-the-box access to some platform-specific services and APIs from the operating system. However, we want to avoid the “lowest common denominator” problem with most cross-platform APIs, so we don’t intend to build cross-platform APIs for all native services and APIs.
Finally, we encourage developers to use Flutter’s asynchronous message passing system to create your own integrations with platform and third-party APIs. Developers can expose as much or as little of the platform APIs as they need, and build layers of abstractions that are a best fit for their project.
Can I extend and customize the bundled widgets?
Absolutely. Flutter’s widget system was designed to be easily customizable.
Rather than having each widget provide a large number of parameters,
Flutter embraces composition. Widgets are built out of smaller
widgets that you can reuse and combine in novel ways to make
custom widgets. For example, rather than subclassing a generic
RaisedButton combines a Material widget with a
GestureDetector widget. The Material widget provides the visual
design and the
GestureDetector widget provides the interaction design.
To create a button with a custom visual design, you can combine
widgets that implement your visual design with a
which provides the interaction design. For example,
CupertinoButton follows this approach and combines a
GestureDetector with several other widgets that implement its
Composition gives you maximum control over the visual and interaction design of your widgets while also allowing a large amount of code reuse. In the framework, we’ve decomposed complex widgets to pieces that separately implement the visual, interaction, and motion design. You can remix these widgets however you like to make your own custom widgets that have full range of expression.
Why would I want to share layout code across iOS and Android?
You can choose to implement different app layouts for iOS and Android. Developers are free to check the mobile OS at runtime and render different layouts, though we find this practice to be rare.
More and more, we see mobile app layouts and designs evolving to be more brand-driven and unified across platforms. This implies a strong motivation to share layout and UI code across iOS and Android.
The brand identity and customization of the app’s aesthetic design is now becoming more important than strictly adhering to traditional platform aesthetics. For example, app designs often require custom fonts, colors, shapes, motion, and more in order to clearly convey their brand identity.
We also see common layout patterns deployed across iOS and Android. For example, the “bottom nav bar” pattern can now be naturally found across iOS and Android. There seems to be a convergence of design ideas across mobile platforms.
Can I interop with my mobile platform’s default programming language?
Yes, Flutter supports calling into the platform, including integrating with
Java or Kotlin code on Android, and ObjectiveC or Swift code on iOS.
This is enabled via a flexible message passing style where a Flutter app
might send and receive messages to the mobile platform using a
Learn more about accessing platform and third-party services in Flutter with platform channels.
Here is an example project that shows how to use a platform channel to access battery state information on iOS and Android.
Does Flutter come with a reflection/mirrors system?
Not at this time. Because Flutter apps are pre-compiled for production, and binary size is always a concern with mobile apps, we disabled dart:mirrors. We are curious what you might need reflection/mirrors for—let us know at email@example.com.
How do I do internationalization (i18n), localization (l10n), and accessibility (a11y) in Flutter?
Learn more about i18n and l10n in the internationalization tutorial.
Learn more about a11y in the accessibility documentation.
How do I write parallel and/or concurrent apps for Flutter?
Flutter supports isolates. Isolates are separate heaps in Flutter’s VM, and they are able to run in parallel (usually implemented as separate threads). Isolates communicate by sending and receiving asynchronous messages.
Check out an example of using isolates with Flutter.
Can I run Dart code in the background of an Flutter app?
Yes, you can run Dart code in a background process on both iOS and Android For more information, see the Medium article Executing Dart in the Background with Flutter Plugins and Geofencing.
Can I use JSON/XML/
protobuffers, etc. with Flutter?
Absolutely. There are libraries on pub.dev for JSON, XML, protobufs, and many other utilities and formats.
For a detailed writeup on using JSON with Flutter, check out the JSON tutorial.
Can I build 3D (OpenGL) apps with Flutter?
Today we don’t support for 3D via OpenGL ES or similar. We have long-term plans to expose an optimized 3D API, but right now we’re focused on 2D.
Why is my APK or IPA so big?
Usually, assets including images, sound files, fonts, etc, are the bulk of an APK or IPA. Various tools in the Android and iOS ecosystems can help you understand what’s inside of your APK or IPA.
Also, be sure to create a release build of your APK or IPA with the Flutter tools. A release build is usually much smaller than a debug build.
Do Flutter apps run on Chromebooks?
We have seen Flutter apps run on some Chromebooks. We are tracking issues related to running Flutter on Chromebooks.
Why is the build() method on State, rather than StatefulWidget?
Widget build(BuildContext context) method on
rather putting a
Widget build(BuildContext context, State state)
StatefulWidget gives developers more flexibility when
StatefulWidget. You can read a more
detailed discussion on the API docs for
Where is Flutter’s markup language? Why doesn’t Flutter have a markup syntax?
Flutter UIs are built with an imperative, object-oriented language (Dart, the same language used to build Flutter’s framework). Flutter doesn’t ship with a declarative markup.
We found that UIs dynamically built with code allow for more flexibility. For example, we have found it difficult for a rigid markup system to express and produce customized widgets with bespoke behaviors.
We have also found that our “code-first” better allows for features like hot reload and dynamic environment adaptations.
It’s possible to create a custom language that is then converted to widgets on the fly. Because build methods are “just code”, they can do anything, including interpreting markup and turning it into widgets.
My app has a Debug banner/ribbon in the upper right. Why am I seeing that?
flutter run command uses the debug build configuration.
The debug configuration also checks all asserts, which helps
you catch errors early during development, but imposes a
runtime cost. The “Debug” banner indicates that these checks
are enabled. You can run your app without these checks by
using either the
--release flag to
If you are using the Flutter plugin for IntelliJ, you can launch the app in profile or release mode using the menu entries Run > Flutter Run in Profile Mode or Release Mode.
What programming paradigm does Flutter’s framework use?
Flutter is a multi-paradigm programming environment. Many programming techniques developed over the past few decades are used in Flutter. We use each one where we believe the strengths of the technique make it particularly well-suited. In no particular order:
- The primary paradigm used by Flutter is that of using
small objects with narrow scopes of behavior, composed together to
obtain more complicated effects. Most widgets in the Flutter widget
library are built in this way. For example, the Material
FlatButtonclass is built using a
MaterialButtonclass, which itself is built using an
AnimatedDefaultTextStyle, and a
InkWellis built using a
Materialis built using an
NotificationListener, and an
AnimatedPhysicalModel. And so on. It’s widgets all the way down.
- Functional programming
- Entire applications can be built with only
StatelessWidgets, which are essentially functions that describe how arguments map to other functions, bottoming out in primitives that compute layouts or paint graphics. (Such applications can’t easily have state, so are typically non-interactive.) For example, the
Iconwidget is essentially a function that maps its arguments (
size) into layout primitives. Additionally, heavy use is made of immutable data structures, including the entire
Widgetclass hierarchy as well as numerous supporting classes such as
TextStyle. On a smaller scale, Dart’s
IterableAPI, which makes heavy use of the functional style (map, reduce, where, etc), is frequently used to process lists of values in the framework.
- Event-driven programming
- User interactions are represented by event objects
that are dispatched to callbacks registered with event handlers.
Screen updates are triggered by a similar callback mechanism. The
Listenableclass, which is used as the basis of the animation system, formalizes a subscription model for events with multiple listeners.
- Class-based object-oriented programming
- Most of the APIs of the framework are built using classes
with inheritance. We use an approach whereby we define
very high-level APIs in our base classes, then specialize
them iteratively in subclasses. For example,
our render objects have a base class (
RenderObject) that is agnostic regarding the coordinate system, and then we have a subclass (
RenderBox) that introduces the opinion that the geometry should be based on the Cartesian coordinate system (x/width and y/height).
- Prototype-based object-oriented programming
ScrollPhysicsclass chains instances to compose the physics that apply to scrolling dynamically at runtime. This lets the system compose, for example, paging physics with platform-specific physics, without the platform having to be selected at compile time.
- Imperative programming
- Straightforward imperative programming, usually paired with state encapsulated within an object, is used where it provides the most intuitive solution. For example, tests are written in an imperative style, first describing the situation under test, then listing the invariants that the test must match, then advancing the clock or inserting events as necessary for the test.
- Reactive programming
- The widget and element trees are sometimes described as
reactive, because new inputs provided in a widget’s
constructor are immediately propagated as changes to
lower-level widgets by the widget’s build method, and
changes made in the lower widgets (for example,
in response to user input) propagate back up the tree
via event handlers. Aspects of both functional-reactive and
imperative-reactive are present in the framework,
depending on the needs of the widgets. Widgets with build
methods that consist of just an expression describing how
the widget reacts to changes in its configuration are functional
reactive widgets (for example, the Material
Dividerclass). Widgets whose build methods construct a list of children over several statements, describing how the widget reacts to changes in its configuration, are imperative reactive widgets (for example, the
- Declarative programming
- The build methods of widgets are often a single
expression with multiple levels of nested constructors,
written using a strictly declarative subset of Dart.
Such nested expressions could be mechanically transformed
to or from any suitably expressive markup language.
For example, the
UserAccountsDrawerHeaderwidget has a long build method (20+ lines), consisting of a single nested expression. This can also be combined with the imperative style to build UIs that would be harder to describe in a pure-declarative approach.
- Generic programming
- Types can be used to help developers catch programming
errors early. The Flutter framework uses generic programming to
help in this regard. For example, the
Stateclass is parameterized in terms of the type of its associated widget, so that the Dart analyzer can catch mismatches of states and widgets. Similarly, the
GlobalKeyclass takes a type parameter so that it can access a remote widget’s state in a type-safe manner (using runtime checking), the
Routeinterface is parameterized with the type that it is expected to use when popped, and collections such as
Sets are all parameterized so that mismatched elements can be caught early either during analysis or at runtime during debugging.
- Concurrent programming
- Flutter makes heavy use of
Futures and other asynchronous APIs. For example, the animation system reports when an animation is finished by completing a future. The image loading system similarly uses futures to report when a load is complete.
- Constraint programming
- The layout system in Flutter uses a weak form of constraint programming to determine the geometry of a scene. Constraints (for example, for cartesian boxes, a minimum and maximum width and a minimum and maximum height) are passed from parent to child, and the child selects a resulting geometry (for example, for cartesian boxes, a size, specifically a width and a height) that fulfills those constraints. By using this technique, Flutter can usually lay out an entire scene with a single pass.
Where can I get support?
If you think you’ve encountered a bug, file it in our issue tracker. You might also use Stack Overflow for “HOWTO” type questions. For discussions, join our mailing list at firstname.lastname@example.org or seek us out on Discord.
For more information, see our Community page.
How do I get involved?
Flutter is open source, and we encourage you to contribute. You can start by simply filing issues for feature requests and bugs in our issue tracker.
We recommend that you join our mailing list at email@example.com and let us know how you’re using Flutter and what you’d like to do with it.
Finally, you can connect with helpful Flutter communities. For more information, see our Community page.
Is Flutter open source?
Yes, Flutter is open source technology. You can find the project on GitHub.
Which software license(s) apply to Flutter and its dependencies?
Flutter includes two components: an engine that ships as a dynamically linked binary, and the Dart framework as a separate binary that the engine loads. The engine uses multiple software components with many dependencies; view the complete list in its license file.
The framework is entirely self-contained and requires only one license.
In addition, any Dart packages you use might have their own license requirements.
How can I determine the licenses my Flutter application needs to show?
There’s an API to find the list of licenses you need to show:
For a more custom approach, you can get the raw licenses from the
Who works on Flutter?
Flutter is an open source project. Currently, the bulk of the development is done by engineers at Google. If you’re excited about Flutter, we encourage you to join the community and contribute to Flutter!
What are Flutter’s guiding principles?
We believe the following:
- In order to reach every potential user, developers need to target multiple mobile platforms.
- HTML and WebViews as they exist today make it challenging to consistently hit high frame rates and deliver high-fidelity experiences, due to automatic behavior (scrolling, layout) and legacy support.
- Today, it’s too costly to build the same app multiple times: it requires different teams, different code bases, different workflows, different tools, etc.
- Developers want an easier, better way to use a single codebase to build mobile apps for multiple target platforms, and they don’t want to sacrifice quality, control, or performance.
We are focused on three things:
- Developers deserve access to, and control over, all layers of the system. Which leads to:
- Users deserve perfectly fluid, responsive, jank-free apps. Which leads to:
- Everyone deserves precise, beautiful, delightful app experiences.
Will Apple reject my Flutter app?
We can’t speak for Apple, but Apple’s policies have changed over the years, and their App Store contains many apps built with technologies like Unity and Flutter. Apple has even featured Flutter apps such as Hamilton.
Of course, Apple is ultimately in charge of their ecosystem, but our goal is to continue doing everything we can to ensure that Flutter apps can be deployed to Apple’s App Store.