Drag a UI element

Drag and drop is a common mobile app interaction. As the user long presses (sometimes called touch & hold) on a widget, another widget appears beneath the user’s finger, and the user drags the widget to a final location and releases it. In this recipe, you’ll build a drag-and-drop interaction where the user long presses on a choice of food, and then drags that food to the picture of the customer who is paying for it.

The following animation shows the app’s behavior:

Ordering the food by dragging it to the person

This recipe begins with a prebuilt list of menu items and a row of customers. The first step is to recognize a long press and display a draggable photo of a menu item.

Press and drag

Flutter provides a widget called LongPressDraggable that provides the exact behavior that you need to begin a drag-and-drop interaction. A LongPressDraggable widget recognizes when a long press occurs and then displays a new widget near the user’s finger. As the user drags, the widget follows the user’s finger. LongPressDraggable gives you full control over the widget that the user drags.

Each menu list item is displayed with a custom MenuListItem widget.

MenuListItem(
 name: item.name,
 price: item.formattedTotalItemPrice,
 photoProvider: item.imageProvider,
)

Wrap the MenuListItem widget with a LongPressDraggable widget.

LongPressDraggable<Item>(
 data: item,
 dragAnchor: DragAnchor.pointer,
 feedback: DraggingListItem(
   photoProvider: item.imageProvider,
 ),
 child: ListItem(
   name: item.name,
   price: item.formattedTotalItemPrice,
   photoProvider: item.imageProvider,
 ),
)

In this case, when the user long presses on the MenuListItem widget, the LongPressDraggable widget displays a DraggingListItem. This DraggingListItem displays a photo of the selected food item, centered beneath the user’s finger.

The dragAnchor property is set to DragAnchor.pointer. This property value instructs LongPressDraggable to base the DraggableListItem’s position on the user’s finger. As the user moves a finger, the DraggableListItem moves with it.

Dragging and dropping is of little use if no information is transmitted when the item is dropped. For this reason, LongPressDraggable takes a data parameter. In this case, the type of data is Item, which holds information about the food menu item that the user pressed on.

The data associated with a LongPressDraggable is sent to a special widget called DragTarget, where the user releases the drag gesture. You’ll implement the drop behavior next.

Drop the draggable

The user can drop a LongPressDraggable wherever they choose, but dropping the draggable has no effect unless it’s dropped on top of a DragTarget. When the user drops a draggable on top of a DragTarget widget, the DragTarget widget can either accept or reject the data from the draggable.

In this recipe, the user should drop a menu item on a Customer widget to add the menu item to the user’s cart.

Customer(
 hasItems: customer.items.isNotEmpty,
 highlighted: candidateItems.isNotEmpty,
 customer: customer,
)

Wrap the Customer widget with a DragTarget widget.

DragTarget<Item>(
 builder: (context, candidateItems, rejectedItems) {
   return CustomerCart(
     hasItems: customer.items.isNotEmpty,
     highlighted: candidateItems.isNotEmpty,
     customer: customer,
   );
 },
 onAccept: (item) {
   _itemDroppedOnCustomerCart(...);
 },
)

The DragTarget displays your existing widget and also coordinates with LongPressDraggable to recognize when the user drags a draggable on top of the DragTarget. The DragTarget also recognizes when the user drops a draggable on top of the DragTarget widget.

When the user drags a draggable on the DragTarget widget, candidateItems contains the data items that the user is dragging. This draggable allows you to change what your widget looks like when the user is dragging over it. In this case, the Customer widget turns red whenever any items are dragged above the DragTarget widget. The red visual appearance is configured with the highlighted property within the CustomerCart widget.

When the user drops a draggable on the DragTarget widget, the onAccept callback is invoked. This is when you get to decide whether or not to accept the data that was dropped. In this case, the item is always accepted and processed. You might choose to inspect the incoming item to make a different decision.

Notice that the type of item dropped onDragTarget must match the type of the item dragged from LongPressDraggable. If the types are not compatible, then the onAccept method isn’t invoked.

With a DragTarget widget configured to accept your desired data, you can now transmit data from one part of your UI to another by dragging and dropping.

In the next step, you update the customer’s cart with the dropped menu item.

Add a menu item to a cart

Each customer is represented by a Customer object, which maintains a cart of items and a price total.

class Customer {
 Customer({
   required this.name,
   required this.imageProvider,
   List<Item>? items,
 }) : items = items ?? [];

 final String name;
 final ImageProvider imageProvider;
 final List<Item> items;

 String get formattedTotalItemPrice {
   final totalPriceCents =
       items.fold<int>(0, (prev, item) => prev + item.totalPriceCents);
   return '\$${(totalPriceCents / 100.0).toStringAsFixed(2)}';
 }
}

The CustomerCart widget displays the customer’s photo, name, total, and item count based on a Customer instance.

To update a customer’s cart when a menu item is dropped, add the dropped item to the associated Customer object.

void _itemDroppedOnCustomerCart({
 required Item item,
 required Customer customer,
}) {
 setState(() {
   customer.items.add(item);
 });
}

The _itemDroppedOnCustomerCart method is invoked in onAccept() when the user drops a menu item on a CustomerCart widget. By adding the dropped item to the customer object, and invoking setState() to cause a layout update, the UI refreshes with the new customer’s price total and item count.

Congratulations! You have a drag-and-drop interaction that adds food items to a customer’s shopping cart.

Interactive example

Run the app:

  • Scroll through the food items.
  • Press and hold on one with your finger or click and hold with the mouse.
  • While holding, the food item’s image will appear above the list.
  • Drag the image and drop it on one of the people at the bottom of the screen. The text under the image updates to reflect the charge for that person. You can continue to add food items and watch the charges accumulate.
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
  runApp(
    MaterialApp(
      home: const ExampleDragAndDrop(),
      debugShowCheckedModeBanner: false,
    ),
  );
}

final List<Item> _items = const [
  Item(
    name: 'Spinach Pizza',
    totalPriceCents: 1299,
    uid: '1',
    imageProvider: NetworkImage('https://flutter'
        '.dev/docs/cookbook/img-files/effects/split-check/Food1.jpg'),
  ),
  Item(
    name: 'Veggie Delight',
    totalPriceCents: 799,
    uid: '2',
    imageProvider: NetworkImage('https://flutter'
        '.dev/docs/cookbook/img-files/effects/split-check/Food2.jpg'),
  ),
  Item(
    name: 'Chicken Parmesan',
    totalPriceCents: 1499,
    uid: '3',
    imageProvider: NetworkImage('https://flutter'
        '.dev/docs/cookbook/img-files/effects/split-check/Food3.jpg'),
  ),
];

@immutable
class ExampleDragAndDrop extends StatefulWidget {
  const ExampleDragAndDrop({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  _ExampleDragAndDropState createState() => _ExampleDragAndDropState();
}

class _ExampleDragAndDropState extends State<ExampleDragAndDrop>
    with TickerProviderStateMixin {
  final List<Customer> _people = [
    Customer(
      name: 'Makayla',
      imageProvider: NetworkImage('https://flutter'
          '.dev/docs/cookbook/img-files/effects/split-check/Avatar1.jpg'),
    ),
    Customer(
      name: 'Nathan',
      imageProvider: NetworkImage('https://flutter'
          '.dev/docs/cookbook/img-files/effects/split-check/Avatar2.jpg'),
    ),
    Customer(
      name: 'Emilio',
      imageProvider: NetworkImage('https://flutter'
          '.dev/docs/cookbook/img-files/effects/split-check/Avatar3.jpg'),
    ),
  ];

  final GlobalKey _draggableKey = GlobalKey();

  void _itemDroppedOnCustomerCart({
    required Item item,
    required Customer customer,
  }) {
    setState(() {
      customer.items.add(item);
    });
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      backgroundColor: const Color(0xFFF7F7F7),
      appBar: _buildAppBar(),
      body: _buildContent(),
    );
  }

  PreferredSizeWidget _buildAppBar() {
    return AppBar(
      iconTheme: const IconThemeData(color: Color(0xFFF64209)),
      title: Text(
        'Order Food',
        style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.headline4?.copyWith(
              fontSize: 36,
              color: const Color(0xFFF64209),
              fontWeight: FontWeight.bold,
            ),
      ),
      backgroundColor: const Color(0xFFF7F7F7),
      elevation: 0,
    );
  }

  Widget _buildContent() {
    return Stack(
      children: [
        SafeArea(
          child: Column(
            children: [
              Expanded(
                child: _buildMenuList(),
              ),
              _buildPeopleRow(),
            ],
          ),
        ),
      ],
    );
  }

  Widget _buildMenuList() {
    return ListView.separated(
      padding: const EdgeInsets.all(16.0),
      itemCount: _items.length,
      separatorBuilder: (context, index) {
        return const SizedBox(
          height: 12.0,
        );
      },
      itemBuilder: (context, index) {
        final item = _items[index];
        return _buildMenuItem(
          item: item,
        );
      },
    );
  }

  Widget _buildMenuItem({
    required Item item,
  }) {
    return LongPressDraggable<Item>(
      data: item,
      dragAnchor: DragAnchor.pointer,
      feedback: DraggingListItem(
        dragKey: _draggableKey,
        photoProvider: item.imageProvider,
      ),
      child: MenuListItem(
        name: item.name,
        price: item.formattedTotalItemPrice,
        photoProvider: item.imageProvider,
      ),
    );
  }

  Widget _buildPeopleRow() {
    return Container(
      padding: const EdgeInsets.symmetric(
        horizontal: 8.0,
        vertical: 20.0,
      ),
      child: Row(
        children: _people.map(_buildPersonWithDropZone).toList(),
      ),
    );
  }

  Widget _buildPersonWithDropZone(Customer customer) {
    return Expanded(
      child: Padding(
        padding: const EdgeInsets.symmetric(
          horizontal: 6.0,
        ),
        child: DragTarget<Item>(
          builder: (context, candidateItems, rejectedItems) {
            return CustomerCart(
              hasItems: customer.items.isNotEmpty,
              highlighted: candidateItems.isNotEmpty,
              customer: customer,
            );
          },
          onAccept: (item) {
            _itemDroppedOnCustomerCart(
              item: item,
              customer: customer,
            );
          },
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class CustomerCart extends StatelessWidget {
  const CustomerCart({
    Key? key,
    required this.customer,
    this.highlighted = false,
    this.hasItems = false,
  }) : super(key: key);

  final Customer customer;
  final bool highlighted;
  final bool hasItems;

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    final textColor = highlighted ? Colors.white : Colors.black;

    return Transform.scale(
      scale: highlighted ? 1.075 : 1.0,
      child: Material(
        elevation: highlighted ? 8.0 : 4.0,
        borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(22.0),
        color: highlighted ? const Color(0xFFF64209) : Colors.white,
        child: Padding(
          padding: const EdgeInsets.symmetric(
            horizontal: 12.0,
            vertical: 24.0,
          ),
          child: Column(
            mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.min,
            children: [
              ClipOval(
                child: SizedBox(
                  width: 46,
                  height: 46,
                  child: Image(
                    image: customer.imageProvider,
                    fit: BoxFit.cover,
                  ),
                ),
              ),

              const SizedBox(height: 8.0),
              Text(
                customer.name,
                style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.subtitle1?.copyWith(
                      color: textColor,
                      fontWeight:
                          hasItems ? FontWeight.normal : FontWeight.bold,
                    ),
              ),
              Visibility(
                visible: hasItems,
                maintainState: true,
                maintainAnimation: true,
                maintainSize: true,
                child: Column(
                  children: [
                    const SizedBox(height: 4.0),
                    Text(
                      customer.formattedTotalItemPrice,
                      style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.caption!.copyWith(
                            color: textColor,
                            fontSize: 16.0,
                            fontWeight: FontWeight.bold,
                          ),
                    ),
                    const SizedBox(height: 4.0),
                    Text(
                      '${customer.items.length} item${customer.items.length != 1 ? 's' : ''}',
                      style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.subtitle1!.copyWith(
                            color: textColor,
                            fontSize: 12.0,
                          ),
                    ),
                  ],
                ),
              )
            ],
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class MenuListItem extends StatelessWidget {
  const MenuListItem({
    Key? key,
    this.name = '',
    this.price = '',
    required this.photoProvider,
    this.isDepressed = false,
  }) : super(key: key);

  final String name;
  final String price;
  final ImageProvider photoProvider;
  final bool isDepressed;

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Material(
      elevation: 12.0,
      borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(20),
      child: Padding(
        padding: const EdgeInsets.all(12.0),
        child: Row(
          mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.max,
          children: [
            ClipRRect(
              borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(12.0),
              child: SizedBox(
                width: 120,
                height: 120,
                child: Center(
                  child: AnimatedContainer(
                    duration: const Duration(milliseconds: 100),
                    curve: Curves.easeInOut,
                    height: isDepressed ? 115 : 120,
                    width: isDepressed ? 115 : 120,
                    child: Image(
                      image: photoProvider,
                      fit: BoxFit.cover,
                    ),
                  ),
                ),
              ),
            ),
            const SizedBox(width: 30.0),
            Expanded(
              child: Column(
                crossAxisAlignment: CrossAxisAlignment.start,
                children: [
                  Text(
                    name,
                    style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.subtitle1?.copyWith(
                          fontSize: 18.0,
                        ),
                  ),
                  const SizedBox(height: 10.0),
                  Text(
                    price,
                    style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.subtitle1?.copyWith(
                          fontWeight: FontWeight.bold,
                          fontSize: 18.0,
                        ),
                  ),
                ],
              ),
            ),
          ],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class DraggingListItem extends StatelessWidget {
  const DraggingListItem({
    Key? key,
    required this.dragKey,
    required this.photoProvider,
  }) : super(key: key);

  final GlobalKey dragKey;
  final ImageProvider photoProvider;

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return FractionalTranslation(
      translation: const Offset(-0.5, -0.5),
      child: ClipRRect(
        key: dragKey,
        borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(12.0),
        child: SizedBox(
          height: 150,
          width: 150,
          child: Opacity(
            opacity: 0.85,
            child: Image(
              image: photoProvider,
              fit: BoxFit.cover,
            ),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class EmptyList extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Center(
      child: Material(
        color: Colors.white,
        type: MaterialType.circle,
        child: Padding(
          padding: const EdgeInsets.all(60),
          child: Column(
            mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.min,
            mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
            children: [
              const Icon(
                Icons.check,
                size: 74.0,
                color: Color(0xFF0E985E),
              ),
              Text(
                'All set!',
                style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.headline6?.copyWith(
                      color: const Color(0xFF0E985E),
                      fontSize: 48,
                    ),
              )
            ],
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

@immutable
class Item {
  const Item({
    required this.totalPriceCents,
    required this.name,
    required this.uid,
    required this.imageProvider,
  });
  final int totalPriceCents;
  final String name;
  final String uid;
  final ImageProvider imageProvider;
  String get formattedTotalItemPrice =>
      '\$${(totalPriceCents / 100.0).toStringAsFixed(2)}';
}

class Customer {
  Customer({
    required this.name,
    required this.imageProvider,
    List<Item>? items,
  }) : items = items ?? [];

  final String name;
  final ImageProvider imageProvider;
  final List<Item> items;

  String get formattedTotalItemPrice {
    final totalPriceCents =
        items.fold<int>(0, (prev, item) => prev + item.totalPriceCents);
    return '\$${(totalPriceCents / 100.0).toStringAsFixed(2)}';
  }
}